Tuesday, August 25, 2020

Factors influence an individual’s self-concept Free Essays

Unique Self-idea is typically characterized, from a conventional perspective, as the arrangement of pictures, musings and sentiments that an individual has of himself/herself. Most creators decipher self-idea as a progression of mentalities towards oneself, all inclusive incorporated by three elements: psychological, conduct and emotional. Self-idea incorporates appraisals of all boundaries that are pertinent to an individual’s advancement: from physical appearance to social and scholarly limits. We will compose a custom paper test on Variables impact an individual’s self-idea? or on the other hand any comparative theme just for you Request Now This article will see a few factors that impact the improvement of an individual’s self-idea: age, sexual orientation, instruction, media and culture. Self-idea and elements of impact Robert B. Consumes (1979) deciphers self-idea as a conceptualization that the individual made of her/his own self, being explained by incredible enthusiastic and evaluative implications. Besides, the abstract convictions and authentic information that the individual credits to himself/herself are profoundly close to home and exceptional, differing in this manner in degrees to its extraordinary character. With respect to confidence, Burns portray it as the procedure by which the individual analyzes his activities, aptitudes and ascribes contrasted with models and qualities that are disguised from society and noteworthy others. Notwithstanding, confidence and self-idea are typically considered as exchangeable thoughts (Byrne, 1996; Harter, 1999). When all is said in done terms, it tends to be recognized three primary attribute of an individual’s self idea (Bracken, 1996): It isn't intrinsic: The individual’s self idea is continually being shaped by understanding. Besides, it likewise relies upon the emblematic language. It is a composed entire: The individual will in general disregard apparent factors that are not acclimated to his/her applied entire, adjusting subsequently his/her own chain of command of appraisals. It is dynamic: It can be altered by a reevaluation of the own character or outer decisions. Self-idea incorporates all the boundaries that are viewed as significant by a person: from physical appearance to sexual limits, social and scholarly capacities, age, media, culture, apparatus, instruction, sex, salary, condition, and so forth. Blueprint of elements that can impact the improvement of an individual’s self idea As a unique quality, an individual’s self idea is described by being in a consistent input (constructive or antagonistic) with the social condition, wherein the conclusions and appraisals of the people we build up close relations with (family, couple, companions), are determinant factors. From the different variables that impact an individual’s self-idea, the center will be coordinated towards the accompanying: Age: Self-idea changes during the individual’s life length, being its most extreme pinnacle of porousness from seven to twelve years of age. It at that point starts to be shaped during youth and begins to diminish at immaturity. Sexual orientation: Although it exists impressive examinations about sex contrasts in self-idea, it appears that there are no indisputable outcomes with respect to this issue. Generally, the investigation of sexual orientation contrasts in self-idea in youthfulness has created impressive enthusiasm for late decades. In spite of the way that the aftereffects of these examinations are fluctuated, the greater part of them presume that there are clear sexual orientation contrasts in self-idea, with the goal that young ladies, especially after the age of twelve, will in general have more terrible self-idea than young men. In this way, as indicated by research, age goes about as a directing variable of the contrasts among young ladies and young men (Orenstein, 1995). Instruction: Education is a fundamental element for relational turn of events. Scholarly accomplishments in the school just as parental managing and social collaboration, are factors adjusting the individual’s self-idea. Media: In contemporary society, the media is an imperative factor of impact in the advancement of individual’s self-idea. Maybe the most significant of its impacts is on the origination of the self-perception. In this regard, promoting and advertising has been creating and imitating a separation between ‘ideal body image’ and ‘real body image’. Such separation may effectsly affect people (i.e; from dietary issues to tension and despondency). Culture: Majority of the investigations center around the disparity between Western culture, portrayed by a progressively needy auto-origination of oneself, and Asian culture, in which reliance remains as the crucial factor in the advancement of self-idea. Portrayal of the variables that can impact the improvement of an individual’s self-idea AGE The meaning of oneself from 5-6 to 7-8 years gives a capacity to segregate between various areas of experience. Between 7-8 years and 11-12, there are critical changes with respect to scholarly capacities and social condition, having exceptional ramifications for both self-idea and confidence. During this scope old enough, kids can contrast themselves with others, yet the data separated from such correlations is simply in administration of self-assessment (Byrne, 1996). Toward the finish of youth, there is an expansion in the penetrability to social qualities, so the models of each culture become another important wellspring of correlation, which, as a rule, add to the disparity between the ‘real self’ and ‘ideal self’ (Harter, 1999). Sex As per ebb and flow research, age goes about as a directing variable of the distinctions in young ladies and young men. In this regard, there are exact proof demonstrating that young ladies have a positive impression of themselves during essential instruction but around twelve, it is delivered a lessening in self-assurance and acknowledgment of self-perception (Orenstein, 1995). The job of ladies in the public arena might be among the components behind this decrease in female confidence. Hence, the perception of what occurs in their environmental factors, take the young ladies to gather that their social job is auxiliary to that played by men. On the other hand, Crain (1996) demands that it is imperative to recall that the hole among young men and young ladies about the various aspects of self-idea isn't exceedingly enormous, and subsequently such speculations have a restricted clinical and instructive criticalness. Young ladies and young men are more indistinguishable than various, and the dissimilarity among male and female are genuinely predictable with sexual orientation generalizations. Training In a general sense inside the field of Educational Psychology, there has been a steady distraction with respect to the connections between self-idea and scholastic execution. In any case, there is an absence of proof showing the exact idea of the connection between the two factors (Marsh and Seeshing, 1997). What it is clear about the job of training in the improvement of an individual’s self-idea is that it mediates the relationship educator understudy, yet additionally the remainder of experts inside the instructive framework. Significantly, since training doesn't end in the school, family is key for a positive improvement of self-idea. MEDIA The media has been assumed an essential job in how people see themselves. Critically, showcasing and publicizing have been added to a general demeanor of habitual utilization just as to the making of a perfect self-perception as an approach to individual and expert achievement. Such solid weight from the media about out of reach stylish models has as its quick outcome an expansion of individual disappointment alongside an ascent in metal pathologies, for example, sadness, tension or dietary problems (Cash, 2011). Be that as it may, research shows that subjects with a positive self-idea are less defenseless against the impact of the media than those with a lower confidence CULTURE Greater part of exploration on social contrasts in self-idea is centered around the correlation among Asian and Western culture. The previous, collectivistic and vertical social orders (high force separation), report higher faith in psychological conduct consistency, share more conviction identified with subordinate connection, yet in addition concur more with conviction identified with accomplishment, self-course and uniqueness inspiration (Smith and Bond, 1998). On the other hand, subjects from Western culture, vertical individualistic social orders, report higher concurrence with requirement for uniqueness and more elevated level of conduct adaptability. A few creators express that such attributes of people from Western culture are because of a higher significance of constructive self-portrayal (Worchel et al, 1998) End An individual’s self-idea experiences outstanding changes during advancement, developing from a structure in which various domains of experience are recognized to another phase in which the major angles are incorporation and significant level reflections. In outline, the improvement of the self-idea during the life expectancy of an individual is exposed to numerous components of impact. References Ashmore, R., y Jussim, L. (1997). Self and personality. Principal issues. New York: Oxford University. Bracken, B. (1996). Handbook of self-idea. New York: John Wiley y Sons. Consumes, R. B. (1979). The self-idea: Theory, estimation, improvement and conduct. New York: Logman. Byrne, B. M. (1996). Estimating self-idea over the life expectancy: Issues and instrumentation. Washington, DC: American Psychologist Association. Money, T. F. (Ed.). (2011). Self-perception: A handbook of science, practice and counteraction. New York: The Guilford Press. Crain, M. (1996). The impact old enough, race and sexual orientation on kid and pre-adult self-idea. In B. A. Bracken (Ed.), Handbook of self-idea. (pp. 395-420). New York: Wiley. Harter, S. (1999). The development of oneself: A turn of events

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Definitions and Types of Sentences in French

Definitions and Types of Sentences in French A sentence (une express) is a gathering of words including, at any rate, a subject and an action word, in addition to any or all of the French grammatical features. There are four essential sorts of sentence, each with its own accentuation, sketched out beneath with models. Ordinarily, each sentence communicates a total idea. One approach to all the more likely comprehend French sentences is to peruse French papers (like Le Monde or Le Figaro) to examine their language structure and development. Portions of a French Sentence Sentences can be isolated into a subject (un sujet), which might be expressed or suggested, and a predicate (un prã ©dicat). The subject is the person(s) or thing(s) playing out the activity. The predicate is the activity of the sentence, which as a rule starts with the action word. Each sentence has an end accentuation mark, for example, a period, question mark, or shout point-contingent upon the kind of sentence, as well as could be expected middle person accentuation, for example, commas. For instance: Je suis professeur. I am a teacher.Subject: Je (I)Predicate: suis professeur (am an instructor) Paul et moi aimons la France. Paul and I love France.Subject: Paul et moi (Paul and I)Predicate: aimons la France (love France) La modest fille est mignonne. The young lady is cute.Subject: La dainty fille (The little girl)Predicate: est mignonne (is adorable) 4 Types of French Sentences There are four sorts of sentences: explanations, questions, shouts, and orders. The following are clarifications and instances of each kind. Statement (Phrase Assertive or Phrase Dã ©clarative) Articulations, the most widely recognized sort of sentence, state or proclaim something. There are certifiable statements,â les phrases (dã ©claratives) affirmatives,â and negative statements,â les phrases (dã ©claratives) nã ©gatives. Explanations end in periods. Look at certain models: Les phrases (dã ©claratives) affirmatives (Affirmative explanations) Je vais la banque. (Im setting off to the bank.)Je suis fatiguã ©. (I am tired.)Je vous aiderai. (Sick assistance you.)Jespà ¨re que tu seras l. (I trust youll be there.)Je taime. (I love you.) Les phrases (dã ©claratives) nã ©gatives (Negative explanations) Je ny vais pas. (Im not going.)Je ne suis pas fatiguã ©. (Im not tired.)Je ne veux pas vous aider. (I dont need to help you.)Il ne sera pas l. (He wont be there.)ã‡aâ ne meâ regardeâ pas. (Its not my issue to worry about.) Question (Phrase Interrogative) Interrogatives,â akaâ questions, askâ aboutâ or for something. Note that these sentences end in a question mark, and there is a space for each situation between the last word and the inquiry mark. Examples include: As-tu mon livreâ ? (Do you have my book?)Sont-ils prã ªtsâ ? (Is it true that they are ready?)Oà ¹ est-ilâ ? (Where is he?)Peux-tu nous aiderâ ? (Would you be able to support us?) Outcry (Phrase Exclamative) Exclamatives express a solid response, for example, shock or ire. They look simply like proclamations with the exception of the outcry pointâ at the end; thus, theyre here and there considered a subcategory of articulations as opposed to a different sort of sentence. Note that there is a space between the last word and the outcry point. For instance: Je veux y allerâ ! (I need to go!)Jespà ¨re que ouiâ ! (I trust so!)Il est trã ¨s beauâ ! (Hes very handsome!)Cest une bonne idã ©eâ ! (That is a good thought!) Order (Phrase Impã ©rative) Orders are the main sort of sentence without an unequivocal subject. Rather, the subject is inferred by the conjugation of the action word, which is in the goal. The inferred subject will consistently beâ either the solitary or plural you form:â tuâ for particular and informal;â vousâ for plural and formal. Orders can end in either a period or an outcry point, contingent upon the speakers wanted force. For example: Va tenâ ! (Go away!)Sois sage. (Be good.)Faites la vaisselle. (Do the dishes.)Aidez-nous le trouver ! (Assist us with discovering it!)(Note that theâ and leâ here are not contracted to auâ because le is an item, not an article.)

Saturday, August 1, 2020

The Space Between

The Space Between Over Winter Break, whenever any of my friends or relatives asked me when I was going back to MIT, I couldnt help but sigh, just a tiny little bit. In the past semester or so, Ive realized that being an MIT student makes answering supposedly “normal” questions into rather elaborate affairs. As one example, when someone asks me what classes I took during fall semester, my natural, MIT-conditioned response is to rattle off the course numbers: “18.02, 5.112, 7.012, and 8.012.” So I know Im not in Cambridge anymore, Toto, when I realizing that none of my relatives know what any of those numbers mean have to force myself to say the actual subjects themselves: “Well, I took calculus, chemistry, biology, and physics.” Its the same problem with majors, or buildings, or the Pass/No Record system for freshmen, or any of the wide variety of acronyms that have worked their way into the lexicon of MIT slang. So, when someone asks me when Im going back to MIT, what Id really like to tell all my friends and relatives is that, “Oh, Im heading back this Sunday for IAP.” If I actually said that, though, Id be met with, at best, a raised eyebrow and an innocent query of “WhatsIAP?” Or, somewhat more likely, Id receive a blank, quizzical stare, as my aunt silently thinks to herself, What are they feeding my nephew out there in New England? Its like hes talking in another language! (For all you pre-frosh out there, just think: next year, this could be your aunt. Another great reason why you should come to MIT.) All humor aside, that basically brings me to the point of this entry: what is IAP? The one-sentence, in-a-nut-shell version that I like to tell my friends and relatives is that “IAP, which stands for Independent Activities Period, is a month-long intersession in January between the fall and spring terms, which we spend taking courses, doing research, or just hanging out and having fun.” At which point the aforementioned friends and relatives nod knowingly and generally go, “Ah, that makes sense, I guess.” (Ill be addressing my answer to their common follow-up question “So what are you doing for this IAP?” a little later.) But theres a slight problem with that explanation. While its a perfectly true statement, that single sentence doesnt really capture the true sense and scope of IAP. Todays MIT homepage describes IAP as “an intriguing array of possibilities.” Again, thats completely accurate but at the same time, its quite not the whole story, either. I think the real answer is that IAP is truly what you want it to be. MIT students and faculty are, after all, famous for their innovation. So when you give 4,000-some undergrads, approximately 1,000 faculty, and countless other staff and community members four almost-completely-free weeks to participate in and organize whatever ridiculous, crazy, and/or freaking sweet activities they can up withwell, you can bet some sparks will fly. (Literally and figuratively speaking. Have you heard about the welding class?) If you ask two people what theyre doing over IAP, youll almost certainly get two completely different answers. Melis already blogged about the variety of activities some of her sorority sisters are pursuing, and Ive witnessed the same breadth and depth of pursuits among my own friends. Their plans range the gamut from fun (if perhaps slightly absurd) things like truffle-making lessons and a Mel Brooks movie marathon, all the way to completely serious and intense offerings like the EMT training course and for-credit classes in physics, computer science, or calculus. Other friends are rounding out their month by studying glass-blowing, investigating the history of constructed languages, taking PE courses, or just relaxing with friends and enjoying all that MIT, Cambridge, and Boston have to offer. And, of course, theres always Mystery Hunt to look forward to. Of course, not all students come back to MIT for IAP. A few of my friends are indeed using the first week or two of January to extend their winter break, although theyll be back for the rest of IAP. And campus definitely feels quieter, at least around the dormitory areas, although main campus remains fairly busy. (Perhaps the fact that more people are sleeping in has something to do with it as well. But thats just a hypothesis.) All that said, most students who remain off-campus for IAP are actually pursuing some other sort of educational or career experience outside of Boston, anywhere from New York and California to Spain and India. Since taking a full semester abroad can sometimes be disruptive, visiting another country during IAP can be a great way to expand your global horizons without sacrificing too much else. As for me, Im trying to keep things low-key during my first few weeks back at MIT. Ill be spending most of my time working on my UROP in the Langer Lab I actually wrote most of this entry during my lunch break. A little later on, Ill be dedicating another entry to how UROP works at MIT, and how I found mine. In about two weeks Ill be joining Matt, Bryan, and maybe a few other bloggers as we compete in the annual Mystery Hunt an IAP tradition Ive been looking forward to for quite a while now. And with any luck, I should have evenings open (more or less) to hang out with friends, watch some movies, play a little Rock Band, go to a quick seminar or twothat sort of thing. I guess well just have to see how it all goes. Its IAP, after all. Anything can happen.

Friday, May 22, 2020

Gender Roles Of Shakespeare s Taming Of The Shrew

Angamnuaisiri 1 Narupat Angamnuaisiri Foster English IV 10 April 17 Taming of the Shrew: Gender Roles William Shakespeare was one of the most famous writers in the world during the sixteenth century. He came from England, born in 1564 and died in 1616. He was also a poet with more than one hundred sonnets and two long poems. Many of Shakespeare’s dramas illustrate various forms of domestic and social problems. He was a playwriter of some famous plays, such as Hamlet, Macbeth, Romeo and Juliet, and Taming of the Shrew. Taming of the Shrew is a comedy, written from 1590 to 1592. The characters in the play detail romance mixed with humor. The play talks about gender roles of males and females in society and in their lives during the†¦show more content†¦As a woman, she does not change herself just to satisfy all those people around her who want her to change; she stays true to herself. She rejects the idea of being a typical woman because no one explains to her why she is to act in such a way. Kate is different than her sister. Bianca is the type of woman who i s sweet and obedient to her father. She is soft-spoken, unassuming, and perfect. The men consider Bianca as a normal role model. Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:of Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:e Comment by Grammarly: Deleted:m In Act II, scene I, two marriage proposals occur that are economic. The [†¦] emotional connect between the women and their love interest contracts made by their father† (Women and Power par.1). Petruchio, a gentleman of Verona, comes searching for his fortune. His friend Hortensio tells him that he knows the right woman, but the obstacle is that she is the worst shrew. However, Petruchio does not care. He is sure that he can handle the situation, as long as she has a large dowry. Petruchio’s [†¦] attraction for Kate and Baptista’s requirement that he woo his daughter change the nature of their relationship from a business proposal to one of attraction and, possibly, affection the relationship† (Women and Power par.1). Similarly, Baptista asserts that whoever can assure my daughter greatest dowery / Shall have my Bianca’s love† (2.1.364-365). The oddly possessive â€Å"my Bianca’s love† highlights the patriarchalSh ow MoreRelatedWilliam Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew William Shakespeare’s romantic comedy, The Taming of1100 Words   |  5 Pages William Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew William Shakespeare’s romantic comedy, The Taming of the Shrew, is an embodiment of the context in which the text was shaped, the Renaissance. The Renaissance period was a time of progression, primarily in the areas of art, science, humanism, religion and self-awareness. The Renaissance focused on taking elements of the past including religion, art and science and adapting them to make them better. Humanists advocated for the freedom of the individualsRead MoreGender Essentialism : Katherine s Transformation1735 Words   |  7 PagesGender Essentialism: Katherine s Transformation in William Shakespeare s Taming Of The Shrew Feminist and cultural historians have convincingly demonstrated that rebellious women were a concern for englishmen during the late sixteenth centuries (Detmer 273). The idea of â€Å"taming† a women is one that men can find useful, though women can also benefit from. Katherine cynically conforms to expectation, and in doing so displays how The Taming of the Shrew is a critique on gender essentialism. TheRead MoreThe Taming Of The Shrew1132 Words   |  5 Pagesstrong parallels between them. Shakespeare’s play â€Å"The Taming of the Shrew† (1590-1592) was composed during the Elizabethan era in contrast to Gil Junger’s â€Å"10 Things I Hate About You† (1999) set around 1990s America. Although the diverse time periods their correlating plots are indicators of appropriation and pronounce an intertextual relationship. Both of these texts explore universal themes of gender roles and social hierarchy. Gender and roles is a prominent parallel througho ut the two texts exploringRead MoreThe Taming Of The Shrew And 10 Things I Hate About You Directed By Gil Junger1365 Words   |  6 Pagesaudience.† – Dorothea Kehler Detecting intertextual relationships between The Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare and 10 Things I Hate About You directed by Gil Junger has enriched my understanding of feminism in the American society. The Taming of The Shrew, written in 1593, challenges cultural expectations of women’s rights at that time. 10 Things I Hate About You however, was produced to fit the context of 1990’s America. A period when a great deal of anxiety was focused on adolescent girlsRead MoreScolding Brides And Bridling Scolds : Taming The Woman s Unruly Member920 Words   |  4 PagesIn Scolding Brides and Bridling Scolds: Taming the Woman s Unruly Member, Lynda Boose explains that when Kate puts her hand under Petruchio s boot it is part of the ceremonial custom when a bride was offered a share of property by her intended husband, but also a physical representation of the marriage vow to love, honor, and obey (182-183). Brides were increasingly indisposed to perform this part of the ceremony is apparent from all kinds of invented fumbling at the altar, for example droppingRead MoreEssay about Deception in Shakespeares Taming of the Shrew910 Words   |  4 PagesYear 10 English In the Shakespearian play: The Taming of the Shrew, deception is one of the major concepts. A tangled web is created in the play through deception of character behavior and the change between clothing and class. Most of the deception in the play have particular motives behind them and create dramatic irony. Shakespeare has used dramatic irony to create a comedic play. Character deception in The Taming of the Shrew is used largely, and Lucentio one of the main charactersRead MoreTaming Of The Shrew By William Shakespeare And 10 Things I Hate About You By Gil Junger1365 Words   |  6 Pagesyet profound transformation of sex roles associated with the process of societal modernisation† (Ronald Inglehart, Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around The World, 2003) Detecting the intertextual relationship between Taming of the Shrew by William Shakespeare and 10 Things I Hate About You by Gil Junger, has greatly enhanced and enriched my understanding of love and gender and it’s varying ideals throughout the centuries. Taming of the Shrew depicts the quintessential featuresRead MoreGender Roles Of Female Characters1479 Words   |  6 PagesThroughout the eras, literature has mirrored the social changes taking place in English society specifically in regards to gender roles of female characters. The Elizabethan era, which lasted from 1558 to 1603, is often referred to as the golden age by historians where many transitions in English society regarding marriage and gender took place (Ivic 110). It was a time in which wives were viewed as the property of their husbands (Ivic 110). However, every woman was expected to marry and be dependentRead More Marriage in Shakespeares The Taming of the Shrew Essay1096 Words   |  5 PagesMarriage is pr esented in Shakespeare?s play The Taming of the Shrew, in a complex manner allowing readers to view the play literally as a brutal taming or ironically as a subversive manifesto. Yet, Shakespeare intends to present marriage to be full of mutual love where neither male nor female dominate but compliment each other thriving together in a loved filled relationship. The portrayal of a deep understanding, which exists in an analogical relationship and the gentle transformation, which occursRead MoreThe Taming Of The Shrew By William Shakespeare1382 Words   |  6 PagesIn Shakespeare’s ‘The Taming of the Shrew’, women are shown to be objectified and subservient to men, conforming to the accepted gender roles that are expected of them. Patriarchal views of femininity support the authority of men in society, as well as subjugation and subordination of women. As written of the representation of women in early literature, â€Å"the focus of interest is on the heroineâ⠂¬â„¢s choice of marriage partner, which will decide her ultimate social position and †¦ determine her happiness

Sunday, May 10, 2020

Analysis The Two Towers By Quot. R. Tolkien

Whole person care assignment – Theme: Emotional health connects to bodily health: Mind- Body medicine *Contents of interview included in an attachment Introduction â€Å"It’s like in the great stories, Mr. Frodo. The ones that really mattered. Full of darkness and danger they were. And sometimes you didn’t want to know the end†¦ because how could the end be happy? How could the world go back to the way it was when so much bad had happened? But in the end, it’s only a passing thing†¦ this shadow. Even darkness much pass.† - The Two Towers’ by J.R.R. Tolkien The reason I have chosen this extract to introduce my assignment is because I believe it nicely symbolises the thoughts that go though someone with anorexia nervosa and those closest to them. After interviewing my cousin and speaking to her parents during and after their daughter’s recovery, I could see that they felt like the torture of watching their daughter starve herself to death would never end. Not only is the link between the mind and the body most evident in someone suffering from anorexia nervosa, but it is also important to appreciate the detrimental consequences it will also have on the family. Nevertheless, as this extract illustrates, with the right type of help, the darkness and isolation that an eating disorder brings can be overcome, and recovery is possible. Literature review For someone who has not personally experienced anorexia there was always going to be the temptation to try and

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Teaching Ethics Free Essays

School for scandal? Business schools turn their attention to ethics education This case examines the role of the business school in encouraging corruption in business, and looks at the potential impacts that business ethics training might have on students. It offers the opportunity to explore the significance of the individual and their education and experience for understanding ethical decision-making. It also provides a context for investigating the specific role, purpose, and impact of business ethics courses on business behaviour. We will write a custom essay sample on Teaching Ethics or any similar topic only for you Order Now When it turns out that the key figures in some of the most infamous cases of fraud and corruption in business are alumni from leading business schools, it is perhaps not surprising that the business schools themselves might come in for some criticism. After all, if people like Andrew Fastow, the convicted chief financial officer at Enron, or his boss Jeffrey Skilling, could have got MBAs from two of America’s premier business schools (Northwestern and Harvard, respectively) and , then it is inevitable that questions will be raised about what kinds of principles and practices business school students are being taught. In the last few years, a number of business gurus and commentators have publicly condemned business schools in general, and MBA programmes in particular, for their perpetuation of ‘misguided’ amoral theories and techniques, and the lack of attention to ethics in the curriculum. For example, Henry Mintzberg, the Canadian management expert has famously condemned the MBA model, suggesting that it ‘trains the wrong people in the wrong ways with the wrong consequences’, whilst Sumantra Ghoshal, the late London Business School professor has argued that the ‘worst excesses of recent management practices have their roots in a set of ideas that have emerged from business-school academics over the last 30 years. Ghoshal’s ire is directed to typical theories taught at business schools such as agency theory and Porter’s ‘5 forces’ model, which he claims perpetuate an idea that everyone is self-interested, managers cannot be trusted, business is a zero-sum game, and shareholder value is the only legitimate aim of business. The perpetuation of such assumptions, he suggests, leaves business school students devoid of any sense of moral responsibility. These criticisms have received a lot of attention in academic debates, but ha ve also been readily recounted in the media and the business community. For instance The Economist ran a 2005 article headlined ‘Business schools stand accused of being responsible for much that is wrong with corporate management today’ which brought the arguments from Ghoshal, Mintzberg, and others to a wider audience – albeit in a context where the magazine rather predictably mounted a strong defence. After all, as The Economist argued, there are plenty of examples of corporate crooks who have not had a business school education, so there are clearly other aspects to consider too. Nevertheless, whatever else the debate has done, it has certainly helped refocus the attention of business schools on their curricula, and especially on the provision of courses on ethics and social responsibility. At one level, this debate is simply about whether more business schools should be encouraged to introduce such courses into the curriculum. Whilst some schools have long included ethics in their curricula, others have tended to focus more on areas such as strategy, innovation, marketing and finance, whilst others have even dropped ethics courses due to low enrolments or political manoeuvring by sceptical colleagues. As one Wall Street Journal article put it, ‘MBA students and professors bristle at ethics requirements. Some faculty members resent being forced to squeeze ethics lessons into an already jam-packed syllabus, while students grumble that ethics classes tend to be preachy and philosophical. ’ In this context, the evidence on the scale of ethics teaching is revealing. A recent survey of US schools found that 34 per cent required an ethics course at undergraduate level whilst only 25 per cent did so on MBA degrees. In Europe, the figures are if anything a little lower for compulsory courses, but more than 50 per cent of business schools report having an optional module on ethics or responsibility at undergraduate level and more than 30 per cent at masters level. Essentially, though, most business students can still complete a degree having had hardly any exposure to these subjects in the classroom – a situation that some are now trying to change. One development comes from the US, where a long running campaign by business ethics professors has been trying to make courses on ethics and responsibility compulsory for business students. Over 200 professors offered support to the campaign, but the AACSB (the body responsible for accrediting business degree programmes) appears, so far, to be unconvinced. A recent redraft of their guidelines for accreditation did not bow to the campaigners’ demands, and business ethics remains outside of their list of accredited subjects. Diane Swanson and Bill Frederick, the campaign leaders responded by condemning the AACSB’s arguments for excluding ethics as ‘desperate and out of date against the backdrop of unprecedented corporate scandals, increased public distrust of business, and a virtual sea change in corporate governance. However, some leading schools have moved towards greater attention to ethics. Harvard Business School, for instance, introduced a compulsory course on ‘Leadership and Corporate Accountability’ for all first year students in 2004 – a development that the school claimed represented ‘the most far-reaching course weà ¢â‚¬â„¢ve ever introduced on this subject’. In Europe, the situation is also changing, and in fact there appears to be significantly more support than in the US from European accrediting bodies. The Association of MBAs for example, has issued new criteria for the accreditation of MBA programmes that stipulate that the curriculum ‘should pay attention to ethical and social issues’, while the European Foundation for Management Development (EFMD) is also considering ways to integrate CSR into its EQUIS accreditation. New academic departments and centres have also sprung up in universities to lead ethics and responsibility teaching, such as the Business and Society Management department at Rotterdam School of Management and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility in Nottingham University Business School. Whilst there is still a long way to go before schools successfully infuse ethics education across all of their courses, such developments certainly point to an increased emphasis over the past decade. Ethics and corporate responsibility feature far more prominently in the prospectuses of business schools than they did even a few years ago. Questions remain though about how ethics should best be integrated into the curriculum, and even whether exposure to the subject really has a positive effect on the decisions made by managers. While some maintain that a stand alone course on ethics is necessary to develop a suitable understanding of the subject and to consolidate its importance on the curriculum, others argue that this raises the prospects of generating an ‘ethics ghetto’ unconnected to mainstream business subjects such as finance and marketing. And the jury is still out on just how much of an effect any form of ethics training is likely to have on individuals. Various objections have been raised over the years, including the suggestion that students’ morality is already fixed and cannot be improved, and the accusations that ethics teaching is abstract, mbiguous, subjective, and little more than indoctrination from self-righteous ideologues. Of course, the extent to which some of these accusations are true will vary from course to course, and on the goals of any specific programme. In the main, evidence suggests that courses are rather better at enhancing students’ recognition of ethical issues, stimulating their moral imagination, and developing their analytical skills rather than improving students’ moral development or changing their values. As one business ethics professor puts it, ‘I do not want to teach moral standards; I want to teach a method of moral reasoning through complex issues so that students can apply the moral standards they have. ’ This highlights another growing debate among business ethics professors about the very purpose of business ethics education – and even what a business ethics course should consist of. Whilst one camp retains belief in the established practice of teaching moral philosophy to develop better normative thinking among students, other camps have started to emerge. Some business school professors see more need to focus on practical management concerns, such as managing the corporate reputation or preventing accounting fraud, whilst others point to the need to understand ethics within wider social, political, and economic structures. One recent business ethics textbook (by Jones et al. 2005) was even introduced by the authors with an admission that they were ‘not particularly fond of business ethics’ because ‘business ethics in its present form is at best window dressing and a worst a calculated lie’! Ultimately then, developments in the field of business ethics education suggests that business schools and accreditation bodies may be beginning to take the subject more seriously, especially in Europe where something of a momentum appears to be building. However, the future direction of business ethics remains in some doubt. Not only will its integration into the curriculum remain problematic for some time yet, but as the subject expands and develops, the approach to teaching business ethics will probably shift quite considerably into new conceptual territory. Whatever the outcome, business ethics will have to go a long way before it presents a completely convincing antidote to corporate wrongdoing, and misconduct in the workplace. Questions 1. What are the main factors encouraging business ethics education and what are the main barriers to its further development and expansion? 2. To what extent can business education cause or prevent ethical infractions in business? Give arguments for and against. 3. Given the importance of situational factors in shaping ethical decision-making, what are the limitations posed by business ethics courses that focus on individual students? How would you design a course to focus primarily on situational issues? 4. Consider the aims and approach of the business ethics course that you are currently studying. What are these, and how effective is the approach for achieving these aims? What would you like to see done differently? Sources Alsop, R. 2005. At MBA programs, teaching ethics poses its own dilemmas. Wall Street Journal, 12 April. wsj. com. Boston Globe. 2003. Harvard raises its hand on ethics. Boston Globe, 30 December. Ghoshal, S. 2003. Business schools share the blame for Enron. Financial Times, 18 July. Ghoshal, S. 2005. Bad management theories are destroying good management practices. Academy of Management Learning and Education, 4 (1): 75–91. Jones, C. , Parker, M. , and ten Bos, R. 2005. For business ethics. London: Routledge. Lacy, P. 2005. From the margins to the mainstream: corporate responsibility and the challenge facing business and business schools. Business Leadership Review, 1 (2) (April): 3. Matten, D. and Moon, J. 2004. Corporate social responsibility in Europe. Journal of Business Ethics, 54: 323–37. McDonald, G. M. and Donleavy, G. D. 1995. Objections to the teaching of business ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 14: 839–53. Mintzberg, H. 2004. Managers not MBAs: a hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall. Swanson, D. and Frederick, W. 2005. Campaign AACSB: status report, January. www. pitt. edu/~rorst6/sim/aacsb. The Economist. 2005. Business schools, bad for business. The Economist, 17 February. How to cite Teaching Ethics, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Volunteer tourism

Introduction Volunteer tourism is undertaken by the tourists in the local communities where they volunteer to help the by helping eliminating material poverty. It is an alternative form of tourism because the tourists opt to make their travel locally.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Volunteer tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Motivations for participants in volunteer tourism The main motivation of this kind of tourism is to volunteer in working for the host community as the tourists learn more about their culture and other things. They satisfy the desire to work but not to be just tourists. They work for no pay in the communities that they travel to and this benefits in providing free labor, though short term to the host country or community. There are other tourists that are motivated by the desire to give (Sin, 2009, 487-491). When they visit these communities they try to alleviate poverty materials by g iving items to the people. The needy people benefits from these items and the tourists are satisfied. They argue that they feel good when they give. There are other tourists that participate in volunteer tourism in order to contribute to the host community in any way possible. This is done through community service activities that these participants undertake. They do volunteer work that help the community and they themselves feel that they have contributed to the community. Others argue that they learn a lot through community service because they get a chance to interact with the people in the community and learn a lot from them. They learn cultural differences between different communities and how they differ from each other. They also learn how the reception is done by different communities and how they differ from each other. According to (Sin, 2009, 487-491), volunteers in this kind of tourism are also motivated by the desire to try themselves out in doing something. There are people who engage in it in order to try whether they can do volunteering. This is mostly for people who are doing it for the first time and who are curious to know whether they are capable of doing it. This motivation has increased volunteer tourism in most countries. People also do it in order to try their ability in doing some activities. They test their capability in doing that particular activity.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Benefits of volunteer experience Volunteer experience causes intrinsic motivation which is a result of mutually beneficial interaction. The intrinsic motivations tries to satisfy intrinsic needs like self actualization and therefore the tourists will feel satisfied when they are in volunteer travels. This is basically for people seeking self actualization (Stebbins Graham, 2004, 28). The host community and the tourists benefits from the volunt eer tourism. The host community gets help from the tourists while the tourists gain satisfaction from the tour. The benefits of volunteer tourism are built by both the host community and the tourists. The level of interaction also determines the level of satisfaction. The tourists have to prove beneficial to the community so that the community can create a good environment for tourists. As stated by McIntosh Zahra (2007, 549-550), volunteer tourism gives somebody a meaningful self experience as one interacts with the local people in the host community. Volunteers get to learn more about the culture of other people and compare with their own culture. One learns to appreciate other people and to help them in times of their needs. One of the volunteers interviewed by McIntosh Zahra argued that he learned to give support to those in needs as he learned that he was better than them (McIntosh Zahra (2007, 549-550). In other words, volunteer tourism enables somebody to interact with peo ple and know them better, their culture and that some need your help. Volunteer tourism also enables the tourists to experience a cheaper travel than what other forms of tourism would cost them. To travel as a tourist is more expensive than when one is doing volunteering. There are usually subsidies offered to volunteer tourism. For instance, the universities subsidize trips for students to other countries where they go as volunteers. The volunteers find it cheaper than the actual tourism. They therefore travel to volunteer because of the cost effectiveness associated with the volunteer tourism. The tourists also gains interpersonal experience as they interact with the people in the host communities. They enjoy moments of sharing about their lives and cultural differences (Guttentag, 2009, 549). They also builds bold and genuine relationships with the host community as they continue interacting with them and this gives them the desire to travel again to that particular communities a nd others to make more friends. Volunteer tourism also enables the tourists to know many local places in the host country.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Volunteer tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The tourists travel to the local communities helping them in doing activities and then giving material things. This exposure allows the tourists to know more about the local communities; their activities, locations, believes and values among others. This is different from the formal tourism where the tourists only visit the tourist sites in a country but will not have chances to know other places in that community. Relation to reference material and theories of tourist motivation and behavior One of the basic theories of motivation suggests that tourism is basically done to satisfy the psychological needs of the tourist. These are the intrinsic needs that a person feels from within and seeks their satisfaction (Rogers, 2007, 23). For volunteer tourism, the tourists also have the desire to satisfy the intrinsic needs or the self actualization needs. The volunteer tourism therefore has some aspects of the formal tourism as far as the needs are concerned. The only notable difference is the activities the tourists in the two kinds of tourism are involved in. in volunteer tourism, the tourists engage themselves in volunteer activities and they derive their satisfaction from them. In formal tourism, the tourists obtain their satisfaction from touring the tourist magnificent sites that are present in that country and not through the volunteer activities in the local communities. Conclusion Volunteer tourism is becoming very common in many parts of the country. People prefer it because of the fulfilling experience it gives them. People are motivated by different factors in doing the volunteer travels Reference List Guttentag, D. A. (2009). â€Å"The possible negative impacts of volunteer touris m†.  International Journal of Tourism Research, 11: 537-551 McIntosh, A.J. Zahra, A. 2007. A cultural encounter through volunteer tourism: Towards the ideals of sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 15(5): 541-556. Rogers, M. (2007). â€Å"Volunteerism is on the rise†. In Travel Agent, 17 September, 20-24.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Sin, H.L. 2009. Volunteer tourism – ‘involve me and I will learn’? Annals of Tourism  Research, 36(3): 480-501. Stebbins, R.A. Graham M.M. 2004. Volunteering as Leisure- Leisure as Volunteering  An International Perspective Wallingford: CABI This essay on Volunteer tourism was written and submitted by user Ultimo to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.